Eiffel tower

The name of the capital of France you will hear more than once in history lessons - many great events are connected with Paris. And, nevertheless, the main miracle today in Paris is the Eiffel tower.

Alexander Gustave Eiffel erected the Eiffel Tower - a lattice structure made of steel with a height of almost three hundred meters

Alexander Gustave Eiffel built the Eiffel tower, a lattice structure made of steel almost three hundred meters high, for the World Exhibition, which took place in 1889 in Paris. According to the author's intention, the Eiffel Tower should symbolize the technical achievements of the 19th century. But contemporaries did not immediately appreciate the daring idea. Many objected: the tower does not belong in the city, and even in the center. But the engineer Eifel believed in his idea. For the implementation of the project, only the drawings required a total area of 4 thousand m2. The Eiffel Tower in the design had 18 thousand parts.

The mass of the Eiffel tower is 7300 tons (gross weight 10100 tons). Today, three towers could be built from this metal. The foundation is removed from the concrete massifs. Fluctuations of the tower during storms do not exceed 15 cm. The lower floor is a pyramid (129,3 m each side at the base) formed by 4 columns connected at an altitude of 57,63 m by an arch vault; on the vault lies the first platform of the Eiffel Tower. The platform is a square (65 meters across). On this platform, the second pyramid tower is raised, formed also by 4 columns connected by a vault on which there is (at an altitude of 115,73 m) a second platform (square 35 m across). Four columns, towering on the second platform, pyramidally approaching and gradually intertwining, form a colossal pyramidal column (190 m), carrying a third platform (at an altitude of 276,13 m), also square (16,5 m across); on it there is a beacon with a dome, over which at an altitude of 300 m there is a platform (1,4 m across).

As time passed, the Parisians became accustomed to this miracle and became proud of it. Excellent fit in the city landscape, the Eiffel tower and today remains a symbol, however, no longer technical achievements, and the capital of France, known in all corners of the earth. Originally, the Eiffel Tower towered 300,65 meters above the ground. The height together with the new antenna is 324 meters (2010). But still, the main specialty of the Eiffel were bridges. The first of these was the iron bridge in Bordeaux. And then others followed - light metal structures, the erection of which Eiffel was engaged almost thirty years. In 1884, on the eve of designing the Eiffel Tower, he created the Garabi viaduct - one of the largest arch bridges with a span of 165 m. But not the size of the passage was the glory of this structure. It is in a design that anticipates the characteristic features of the future Eiffel Tower: openwork crescent-shaped arch, the shape of which exactly corresponds to the distribution of forces in the structural elements, and the visual effect creates a peculiar image of "repulsion" from the supports and vigorous leap through the deep ravine, thin elegant lattice supports tapering up, a lace lace of 55-meter trusses. And if the Eiffel did not build the tower that glorified it, he would still have entered the pleiad of great engineers as the author of majestic bridges.

The Eiffel tower is called the most visited paid landmark of the world and the most photographed. For example, in 2006, 6719200 people visited the tower, and in its entire history, until December 31, 2007, there were 236445812 people.