Emerald

Emerald - a bright green variety beryl. Along with diamond, ruby and sapphire is one of the most majestic and expensive gems. Its dense green color is not found in any other natural transparent mineral. The gem has hexahedral prismatic crystals or splices, hardness 7,5 - 8.

The bright green color of the emerald is involuntarily compared with various natural colors

Fig.1. Crystals and splices of the emerald (crystal in the center 12 cm in size).

The origin of the name of the stone is not clearly established. From the Persian word "zummurud" through the Greek "smaragdos" and several forms in Latin from "smaragdus" to "esmeralda", it reached us in the form of "emerald" in English and "emerald" (izmaragd) in Russian.

The bright green color of the emerald is involuntarily compared with various natural colors - with the color of delicate, shiny leaves on the trees and the first grass in the meadows, the word "emerald" has an adjective, which is also often found in literature: "emerald green foliage", "emerald eyes".

As sapphires used to call all the blue stones, rubies are all red, and jasper all variegated, and emeralds called all the minerals that have a green color. And at first the word was applicable to opaque stones. On copper deposits emeralds called chrysocolla and especially dioptase, which has the form of small crystals. Called so other stones and in the place of the find. African emeralds are fluorites and tourmaline, Brazilian - tourmaline, viluyskie - Vesuvian, Indian - quartz, Oriental - corundums, Urals - grenades (demantoid and uvarovite). Emerald night or evening is called peridot. Now all these names are considered obsolete. Imitations of these stones are also given decent names: Emerald Brighton, Spanish, Medinsky, scientific, talisman, electric.

As sapphires used to call all the blue stones, rubies are all red, and jasper all variegated, and emeralds called all the minerals that have a green color

Fig.2. Crystals of the emerald in mica.

A special place among the precious stones was supplied by the emerald wondrous beauty its color, which determined its high cost. At all times he was recognized as one of the best stones and was sometimes valued above diamond and ruby. It is used in particularly valuable jewelry, which is framed with diamonds.

This amazing stone could not ignore the attention not only nature researchers, but also poets and writers, who devoted many pages and even whole works to it. It is no accident, apparently, their attention to this stone: according to ancient beliefs, he inspired people of art for creativity.

Among the most famous emeralds can be mentioned Emerald Kokovina, which was found in 1834, was stolen on the way to St. Petersburg and is still not found, and stored in the British Museum of Natural History Devonshire emerald (mentioned in documents since 1831) weighing almost 1384 carats, mined in South America. True, Emerald Kokovina was so good that they began to call his name another - a crystal weighing 2226 g, 18,5 cm high. And also with an extraordinary history. Excellent emeralds are stored in the Diamond Fund. Here - faceted in the form of plates and in the form of cabochons, a large stone weighing 245 carats. But the most magnificent is the transparent Colombian emerald - the famous "Emerald Table". It belongs to the number of regalia of the former Russian court, has a mass of 132,25 carats and dimensions of 3,6x3,25 cm at a height of 6 cm. The stone is inserted into the brooch of the work of the 19th century.

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