Repeated geographical discoveries

In the history of geographical discoveries, there were quite a few cases, when either because of insufficient qualifications of navigators, or for some other reason, the discovered new lands could not be found for a long time in the ocean expanses. Decades passed, and sometimes centuries, and they were accidentally "found" by other seafarers and mapped, but under different names, making repeated geographical discoveries.

Decades passed, and sometimes centuries, and they were accidentally found by other seafarers and mapped, but under different names, making repeated geographical discoveries

I think it will be interesting to learn about some of these repeated geographical discoveries.

We begin the story with the island of Tahiti, located in the South Pacific. This island was discovered in 1606 by the Spanish navigator Pedro de Cheiros. Then again his compatriots, for many years, unsuccessfully searched for this flourishing land.

Understood, geographers even brought it to the lists of so-called "fictional islands". Only in April 1768, Louis Bougainville accidentally discovered him.

Among the islands of Kermadec, located to the northeast of New Zealand, the northernmost is called Raul, or Sandy. The first name was assigned to the island by the French Vice-Admiral Brurney D'Antrcasto in 1793 in honor of his helmsman Joseph Raoul, and he called the whole group of islands after one of the captains of his ships, Juan Kermadec. But, obviously, due to bad information, three years later Raoul Island was re-discovered by English captain Raven. His ship "Britain" approached the island on Sunday, and therefore without any doubt the island received the second name Sandy, that is, "Sunday". However, justice won, and on most maps the island is designated by its first name - Raul. Like the entire Kermadec island group, it belongs to New Zealand.

Now let's fast forward to the extreme north of the Pacific Ocean. Here in the Bering Strait, which connects the Pacific Ocean with the Arctic and separates the continents of Eurasia and North America, there are almost two relatively small islands, the Russian Great Diomede and the American Small Diomede. Interestingly, they are also separated by the so-called date line. Therefore, when a new day arrives on Big Diomede, for example, it is enough to cover a distance of just 4160 meters to the American island in order to return to yesterday, and vice versa. Most of the year they are shrouded in thick veil of fog. It is because of this impenetrable fog that the islands were opened twice.

In 1728, members of the expedition of V. Bering aboard the ship "Saint Gabriel" suddenly saw an unknown island in the fog and assigned it the name of Saint Diomede, on whose day the discovery was made. However, this discovery was forgotten, and in 1811 the Russian navigator O. Kotzebue, making a voyage around the world on the ships Rurik and Enterprise, saw two islands in the Bering Strait and called the largest of them, located to the west, Ratmanov Island, and the smaller one, to the east, by the island of Kruzenshtern. When it turned out that Kotzebue only repeated the discovery of Bering, who did not consider that there were two islands in the fog, they got their former Bering name with the addition of "Big" and "Small" Diomede.

The island of Jan Mayen, which is located in the northern part of the Atlantic Ocean near Greenland, has also reopened. It was first opened by Captain Hudson in 1607, but this discovery remained unknown at that time. Re-discovered this stern island of "winds, rains and fogs" in 1611, the Dutchman Jan Mayen, by whose name he was named.

But the famous Pacific archipelago of Samoa was opened even three times. The Dutchman J. Roggevein first did this in 1722, and then they were alternately "rediscovered" in 1768 by L. Bougainville, and in 1787 another French seafarer, La Perouse.

It should be said that repeated geographical discoveries were made not only with individual islands or archipelagoes, but even with whole continents. Let us recall at least the mainland of North America, which opened long before its official opening by Christopher Columbus. The same can be said about the continents of South America and Australia. It is known that the latter was discovered by the Dutch (Janzon in 1606), from which it received the name of New Holland. However, the Dutch kept this discovery secret, for fear of its capture by the British. The official opening of the fifth continent, as Australia is sometimes called, belongs to the English navigator D. Cook in 1770. But D. Cook had a competitor - the famous English navigator and pirate William Dampier, who, according to some scientists, discovered this continent in 1683 year.

Tools