Pirates of the Caribbean

Many people have heard a romantic song about the Flibusterian blue sea. You do not have a geographic map. Where is it, if this is not the fruit of human imagination? Find the north coast of South America on the map. They are washed by one of the largest seas of the globe - the Caribbean. The sea is spread over a vast territory between Central and South America in the west and south, and also by the chains of the Greater and Lesser Antilles in the north and east. So, unofficially the Caribbean Sea was also called the Flibuster. Filibusters, or pirates of the Caribbean, return us to the stormy period of 16-17th century, when from the conquered Spanish conquistadors of the New World, as America was called then, sailed to Spain numerous three-masted vessels-galleons with stolen gold, silver, pearls and precious stones. Many of these ships were killed either during violent storms, or in clashes caused by pirates of the Caribbean Sea. It was in these waters that Daniel Defoe placed his island in the famous novel "Robinson Crusoe".

Therefore, the kings of these countries hired pirates of the Caribbean Sea and issued special diplomas to them to seize and rob the ships of the countries with which they fought

The fact is that Britain, France and the Netherlands were late with the opening of the New World, and the Spanish colonialists, fearing competition in the robbery of local residents, did not allow these countries to establish their settlements in the West Indies and trade here. Therefore, the kings of these countries hired pirates of the Caribbean Sea and issued special diplomas to them to seize and rob the ships of the countries with which they fought. Having received such "evidence", pirates of the Caribbean Sea were robbed, so to speak, on a legal basis. They were called privateers (from privateer certificates). Half of the stolen valuables pirates of the Caribbean had to give to the government.

The most famous of the pirates of the Caribbean was Francis Drake. It was he who needed Queen Elizabeth to replenish the devastated royal treasury. November 15, 1577 Francis Drake, appointed Admiral of the British Navy, led five armed ships left the harbor Plymouth in a long pirate raid on the Spanish rear in South America. New, then still unknown ways, Drake skirted the continent of South America and penetrated from the Atlantic Ocean into the Pacific, which the Spaniards from the time of Magellan used to consider their "inner sea". Appearing here as snow on his head, he robbed the Spanish galleons that stood in the roads of the ports of Valparaiso, Callao, Guayaquil and Acapulco, ready to be sent to Spain. In order not to meet the Spanish squadrons that were waiting for him near the Strait of Magellan, Drake crossed the Pacific Ocean, Indian Ocean and Atlantic Ocean, rounded Africa and on September 23, 1580, returned to the surviving "Golden Honey" in Plymouth.

So pirate her royal majesty second after Magellan carried out a round-the-world trip. He first bypassed South America by a wide strait (later named after him), which separates Tierra del Fuego from Antarctica, and this proved that Tierra del Fuego is an island, and not a northern ledge of an unknown southern continent, as was then believed. In addition, Drake explored and plotted part of the western coast of North America on a map. He and his pirates of the Caribbean actually opened up the history of British colonialism, paving the way for him through the seas and oceans.

Over time, other pirates of the Caribbean came. Uniting, they are located on the island of Tortuga, located in the Caribbean Sea north of Haiti. Tortuga then belonged to France, and through the governor of the island the French kings received from the pirates considerable profits "for a stop," and therefore contributed to the robbery. On Tortuga, the pirates founded a kind of predatory republic. She had her own fleet, treasury, army. Since 1655, after the British capture of the island of Jamaica, the "capital" of English pirates of the Caribbean became the main then port of the island - Port Royal.

In the second half of the 17th century. pirates of the Caribbean Sea reached its peak. The azure waters of the Caribbean Sea were sailed by ships under the command of numerous pirate leaders. Among them were the bloodthirsty French Legrand, Grammon and Olon, and the Dutch Van Horn, Cornelis Hall, who was nicknamed the Wooden Leg, and Mensfeld, and the Englishmen Jennings, William Dampier, Davis Coxon and the merciless Edward Thich, nicknamed Blackbeard, and many others. But Henry Morgan was the most sinister character. The ships of Morgan, and they numbered 37, with garlands of corpses on the rivers, were a thunderstorm for the whole Caribbean basin.

Born Henry Morgan in 1613 in the family of a rich English landowner. Still young men he was abducted by pirates-slavers and sold into slavery. However, after some time he was lucky to escape to Port Royal. Here he was in the crew of the Dutch pirate Mensfeld, where he moved quickly in the ranks, and after the death of the latter became his successor. Morgan was known as the leader of the gang of the most cruel pirates, people without a clan and tribe, the so-called "sea devils". He was distinguished for his courage, energy, and ability to attract people behind him.

In 1668, he captured Portobelo, the harbor, from where the ships of the "golden fleet" were exported to Spain by Peruvian treasures. Here he took a rich booty, and then broke into the bay of Maracaibo, devastating this most important then the harbor of Venezuela. In 1671, following Drake's example, Morgan landed on the eastern bank of the Panama Isthmus, landed on Panama land, burned it and returned to ships with a large load of looted gold.

In just six years, the gang of Morgan has completely robbed 22 cities, 25 villages and 250 different ships. For all these "feats" the English King Charles II not only, like Elizabeth, made the pirate a nobleman, but also appointed him governor of the wealthy island of Jamaica. From here the pirate governor over the years has committed bloody robbery.

In 1688, the "noble" lord pirate Sir Henry died and was buried with great honor in Port Royal... in the church of St. Catherine. After Morgan, the "golden age" of pirates of the Caribbean Sea went into decline, and some of the riches they riched, according to legend, was hidden on various islands of the Caribbean Sea and elsewhere, which still haunts numerous treasure hunters.

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