Black Sea

Black Sea is located between Europe and Asia Minor. Through the shallow Kerch strait connects with the Azov Sea, across the Bosporus Strait - with the Sea of Marmara and further - through the Dardanelles - with the Mediterranean Sea. The area of the Black Sea is 422 thousand m2. The northwestern part is shallow, the depth is 20-30 m, and the middle is a deep-water basin with the greatest depth of 2210 m. At a depth of about 150 m, the Black Sea contains layers of water contaminated with hydrogen sulphide and therefore completely lifeless.

Black Sea is located between Europe and Asia Minor

Large bays of the Black Sea: Dniester and Dnieper-Bug estuaries, Karkinitsky, Kalamitsky and Sinopsky Gulf. Large rivers flowing into the Black Sea: the Danube, the Dniester, the Southern Bug, the Dnieper, the Rioni, the Kyzyl-Irmak. Main ports: Odessa, Ilyichevsk, Novorossiysk, Tuapse, Poti, Batumi, Constanta, Burgas, Varna, Grabzon, Samsun. The annual river runoff to the Black Sea is about 310 km3, and 80% of these waters are carried to the north-western shelf, mainly by the Danube and the Dnieper.

The ancient Greeks called the Black Sea first Akseynos - the Inhospitable, and then Pontom Evksinsky, which meant the Hospitable Sea. In the 9th century, the Black Sea began to be called Russian, because no one, except Russ, risked to enter its turbulent expanses. The Turks, who captured the Black Sea region in the 15th and 16th centuries, called it Kara-Deniz, which meant Evil or Black.

There are few islands in the Black Sea. The largest island of Jarylgach, its area is 62 km 2. The rest of the islands are much smaller, the largest are Berezan and Serpent (both areas are less than 1 km2).

One of the hypotheses of the Black Sea is that, 7500 years ago, it was the deepest on Earth freshwater lake, the level was lower than the modern one by more than 100 meters. At the end of the glacial period, the level of the World Ocean rose and the Bosporus isthmus was breached. A total of 100 thousand km2 (the fertile lands already cultivated by people) were flooded. The flooding of these vast lands may have become the prototype of the myth of a worldwide flood.

The Black Sea basin consists of two parts - the western and the eastern, separated by a rising, which is a natural extension of the Crimean peninsula. The northwestern part of the sea is characterized by a relatively wide shelf strip (up to 190 km). The southern coast (belonging to Turkey) and the eastern (Georgia) are more steep, the shelf zone does not exceed 20 km and is cut by a number of canyons and valleys.

The climate of the Black Sea, due to its average continental position, is mostly continental. The Black Sea coast of the Caucasus and the southern coast of the Crimea are protected by mountains from cold northern winds and as a result have a mild Mediterranean climate, and to the southeast of Tuapse - a humid subtropical climate. The Atlantic Ocean has a significant impact on the weather over the Black Sea, over which most of the cyclones that produce bad weather and storms originate.

The plant world of the Black Sea includes 270 species of multicellular green, brown, red bottom algae (cystoseira, phyllophora, zoster, kladofor, ulva, enteromorpha, etc.). In the composition of the phytoplankton of the Black Sea - at least six hundred species. The fauna is noticeably poorer than the Mediterranean, in particular, there are no sea stars, sea urchins, sea lilies, octopuses, cuttlefish, squid, corals. In the Black Sea, 2500 species of animals live.

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