Winter and spring plants

Winter and spring plants develop in different ways. If for growing in a bottle you take the seeds of winter plants - wheat, rye and the same plants, but spring forms, then you can observe an interesting phenomenon. When all spring plants eject the stem, bloom and give a grain crop, the winter crops will grow all the time, grow without giving the stems and remain a low bush; for the whole summer they won't give a harvest.

Winter and spring plants develop in different ways

The same will happen if you sow winter and spring wheat or winter and spring rye on a bed next to a spring. Spring trees will go into the tube very quickly, that is, they will give the stems, they will stick out and by the end of the summer they will give a grain crop, and winter crops will grow, grow all summer, but no stems will be formed and, of course, they will not be able to harvest grain either.

Winter crops must survive the winter for crop production, and when sown in the spring, they do not yield the crop in the same year. In order not to lose years, they are sown not in spring, but at the end of summer; they winter in the tillering phase, and next year in the spring they develop stems and bear fruit in the middle of summer.

Each plant in its development goes through several stages. The first stage is called the vernalization stage. For a plant to go through this stage, in addition to nutrition, water and air, a certain temperature is also required. Winter plants differ from spring plants in that they require lower temperatures than spring plants to go through the vernalization stage, and they have a longer vernalization stage than spring plants.

Recent studies have shown that it is enough to withstand them at low temperature for a certain time, at least in the phase of germinating seeds, and after that winter plants will begin to develop as spring, that is, they are vernalized.

Take the seeds of winter wheat (or rye) and put some of them to germinate. Once they bite, transfer them to the cold at 0-3 degrees (for example, put them in a cup and put it in ice water). You need to keep them at this temperature for different times - 15-20 days, depending on the variety, and then sow them in the garden or in a bottle.

For comparison, sow next spring seeds and non-vernalized winter seeds, that is, without prior cooling. Soon you will notice the result of vernalization: winter seeds, chilled before sowing in the germination phase, will develop as spring seeds and with them will yield a crop by the end of summer; and the same seeds, but without vernalization, will remain winter, will be bushy and will not give a grain harvest this year.

So, we see what the difference is in the life of winter and spring plants, and we can imagine what will happen if it is wrong to sow the seeds of winter plants in the spring. Of course, this leads to crop loss. To avoid this, one must look for ways to distinguish spring seeds from winter plants. Practically only wheat is widely distributed in winter and spring forms, and in most varieties it is impossible to distinguish winter wheat from spring wheat by seed.

This is where a careful study of seedlings comes to the rescue. By sowing known winter and spring wheat seeds in a plate, you can notice the difference between the seedlings of one and the other wheat and almost unmistakably identify unknown seeds, letting them germinate and form the first leaf (on the 10-15th day after sowing). A leaf of winter wheat is covered with small hairs that give it a dull appearance; hairs can easily be seen with a simple eye, and even better in a small magnifier; the leaves of spring wheat are smooth, shiny. Sometimes such a definition can provide an invaluable service to the household.

Well, now let's see how vernalization affects spring plants. It turns out that if after wetting and with the appearance of sticky seeds, we can withstand them for a certain time at the appropriate temperature, they will accelerate their development and maturation.

This is the basis for the use of spring vernalization of spring plant crops (especially wheat in arid regions). By vernalization they accelerate their maturation, due to which they manage to get away from the adverse conditions of the second half of the summer.

It should be noted that in general, the seed is more accessible to external influences than an adult plant, which opens up great opportunities for intervention in life, especially of winter and spring plants.