Nerve cells

"Nerve cells are not being restored", we are accustomed to hearing and repeating for a long time. And this expression could well be entered in the truest truths. Nevertheless, at the first congress on the regeneration of the central nervous system in the United States in 1970, reports were made that showed that nerve cells can be regenerated and even wider than scientists previously thought.

Nerve cells are not being restored, we are accustomed to hearing and repeating for a long time

Ten years have passed and new facts have appeared. Thus, studies conducted at the Medical Institute of Maryland, have established that the nerve cells of the brain and spinal cord after their damage are regenerated as a result of the massive growth of specific cells that form a dense plexus at the site of injury. Encouraging results were obtained when parts of peripheral nerve cells were transplanted into damaged parts of the spinal cord, and then parts of the nervous tissue were transplanted into the degenerated areas brain. True, studies are still being conducted on laboratory animals, experiments on humans are considered risky. If you cut the optic nerve of a frog or a fish, then, as is known, it is often restored, finding the "right way" for oneself. The "guiding factor" is probably a chemical substance discovered by Rita Levi-Montalcini, which stimulates nerve cells in growth in the ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system. However, something is produced by the neurons themselves. Many years ago, neuroscientist Paul Weiss found that within the nerve cells the substance moves continuously, and the speed of its movement varies - from a millimeter to several tens of centimeters per day. Is this not related to the process of regeneration of nerve cells?

The neuron is the structural and functional unit of the nervous system. These nerve cells have a complex structure in structure that contain the nucleus, the cell body and the processes. In the human body, there are more than eighty five billion neurons.

Nerve cells consist of protoplasm (cytoplasm and nucleus), outside are bounded by a membrane of a double layer of lipids (bilipid layer). On the membrane are proteins: on the surface (in the form of globules), on which it is possible to observe the growths of polysaccharides, through which the cells perceive external stimulation, and integral proteins that permeate the membrane through which ion channels are located.

The neuron consists of a body with a diameter of 3 to 130 mkm, containing the core and organelles, and also from the processes. There are two types of processes: dendrites and axon. The neuron has a developed and complex cytoskeleton penetrating its processes. The cytoskeleton supports the shape of the cell.

Axon is usually a long process of the nerve cell, adapted to carry out excitation and information from the body of the neuron or from the neuron to the executive organ. Dendrites are short and highly branched neuron processes that serve as the main site for the formation of stimulating and inhibitory synapses affecting the neuron, and which transmit excitation to the body of the nerve cell.