How not to get lost on the moon?

Today, in the age of cosmonautics and rocket science, when people are planning flights to other planets of the solar system, it is interesting to imagine how people would live on these planets. Probably, first of all, people need to learn how to navigate the terrain. Consider, for example, how not to get lost on the moon?

Probably, first of all, people need to learn how to navigate the terrain. Consider, for example, how not to get lost on the moon?

To move on the surface of the moon, first of all, you need a map. Such a map, compiled on the basis of numerous photographs taken by Earth observatories and interplanetary stations, will be provided to lunar travelers. But in order not to get lost on the moon, first of all, it is necessary to orientate correctly. On Earth, the main reference points for this are the Earth's poles, the north and south. Are there similar points on the moon? After all, the night luminary with one of its sides is always facing the Earth. However, there are poles on the moon. For the same twenty-seven and a few days, during which the Moon passes its way around the Earth, it makes a complete revolution around its own axis. And this means that the moon must also have its own poles. By analogy with the earthly ones, they can be called northern and southern. On Earth, the main guiding star is the North Star: it is located near the north pole of the world of the celestial sphere - a point lying on the continuation of the axis of rotation of our planet. Where is the axis of rotation of the moon directed? It turns out that this axis "looks" into the region of the sky located in the area of the constellation Dragon. Participants in lunar expeditions will have to learn how to easily and accurately find this constellation in the sky. This will help the lack of atmosphere - the stars in the moonlit sky are visible during the day with the bright Sun as well as at night.

The lunar day is twenty-seven times longer than the Earth, therefore, the starry sky on the Moon changes over time much more slowly than on Earth. An observer on the side of the Moon facing the Earth will have the opportunity not to get lost on the Moon, using our Earth, which looks like a large blue disk in the lunar sky. Due to the peculiarities of the revolution of the Moon around the Earth and its axis, the Earth is located over the same area of the lunar surface.

In order not to get lost on the Moon, you can also determine the direction of motion along the Sun, and on the Moon to navigate in this way is even more convenient than on Earth. Walking through the forest, we, in order not to get lost, notice at the beginning of the movement which side the Sun is in, and then periodically check our direction with it. However, on Earth, the Sun is rapidly shifting to the west. This requires ongoing amendments. In the sky of the moon, the sun moves extremely slowly, which will greatly facilitate orientation.

The direct conditions for the visibility of the terrain on the surface of our satellite are significantly different from terrestrial. The fact is that the diameter of the moon is almost four times smaller than the earth. Due to this, the curvature of the lunar surface is much greater than the earth's, i.e. the surface is more convex. The horizon on the moon is only two and a half kilometers. Consequently, the survey on the moon is very limited. Direct observation of the terrain can give here a completely misconception about its actual nature.

It is possible that to solve the orientation problem a beacon system will be needed. However, the organization of such a system is impossible without a number of special scientific studies of the propagation of radio waves along the lunar surface. In addition, we do not yet know the electrical conductivity of the lunar soil, which is also important for the propagation of long waves along the surface of the moon. The use of ultrashort radio waves will be limited on the moon by an insignificant horizon.

It is possible that in order not to get lost on the moon, a special system of radio navigation satellites will be created in the lunar space. By receiving their signals, the observer will be able to automatically determine his position on the ground.