Jericho

On the right to be called the first city in the world, claiming primarily Jericho - an oasis, where the Jordan River empties into the Dead Sea.

On the right to be called the first city in the world, claiming primarily Jericho - an oasis, where the Jordan River empties into the Dead Sea

Jericho powered water powerful source Ain es-Sultan ("Source Sultan"), which owes its origins to Jericho. In the name of the source of the Arabs call the hill north of the modern Jericho - Tell es-Sultan ("Mount Sultan"). Already in the late 19th century, he attracted the attention of archaeologists.

In 1907 and 1908 a group of researchers has started excavations at Mount Sultan. They came in two parallel running walls of the city of Jericho, built of sun-dried bricks. The outer wall has a thickness of 2 m and a height of 8.10 m, and the thickness of the inner wall reaches 3.5 m.

In the years 1935-1936, archaeologists came upon the lowest layers of the settlement, it was Jericho Stone Age. People of this era have led a sedentary life.

In 1953, archaeologists made their way through a 40 (!) cultural layers and found Jericho Neolithic period, with huge buildings. The excavations have shown that 10 thousand years ago in Jericho have already begun to artificially grow cereals. In addition, in Jericho found the earliest known science of construction of permanent type, burial and sanctuary, built of earth or small rounded adobe. Jericho occupied an area of about 4 hectares, and was surrounded by a strong defensive wall built of stone. Adjoin the massive round stone tower. Under the protection of a stone wall located round like tent houses on stone foundations with mud-brick walls.

Probably, the main source of income for residents of Jericho served as barter: centrally located city controlled the main resources of the Dead Sea - salt, bitumen and sulfur. All these products were highly appreciated in the Neolithic period.

Researchers estimate the population of the city of Jericho in two thousand people, and this figure may be understated.

How to look and how those first citizens of Jericho lived? Analysis of skulls and skeletal remains found in the city showed that 10 thousand years ago, there lived undersized - just above 150 cm - people with elongated skulls (dolichocephalic), belonging to the so-called Euro-African race. They built oval in terms of the lumps of clay houses, floors were recessed below ground level. In the house we were through the doorway with wooden jambs. Down a few stairs lead. Most of Jericho town houses consist of a single round or oval room with a diameter of 4-5 m, overlapped arch of interwoven twigs. The ceiling, walls and floor were coated with clay. The floors in the homes of the city of Jericho, carefully aligned, sometimes painted and polished them.

The inhabitants of ancient Jericho used stone and bone tools, ceramics and did not know ate wheat and barley. The average age of the residents of Jericho did not exceed 20 years - only a few lived to 40-45 years.

His dead in the city of Jericho were buried just under the floors of housing, putting on the iconic skull masks from plaster with inserted in the eye masks cowrie shells.

Tools