Watches

In ancient times, people also used fire watches along with solar, water and sand. So, the English King Alfred the Great (871-901) adapted the candles to regulate his day work. The candle, which burned completely in about a third of a day, was placed inside a wooden lantern with thin horn windows to protect the fire from drafts. French King Louis 9 (1215-1270) as a clock used a three-foot candle. Charles 5 used candles, marked on 24 parts. Specially appointed people periodically came and reported to him, up to what division the candle burned, so that the monarch could plan his time. Conductors in the Alps marked the candle served as an alarm clock. In a certain place, a pin was stuck in a candle, to which a heavy object was attached. When the fire reached the pin, the object fell to the floor and woke the travelers.

In ancient times people along with solar, water and sand used also a fire clock

Fire as a clock for measuring night time was particularly widely used in China. The wood of a special variety was pounded, rubbed into flour, and a dough-like mass was prepared from it, which was used to mold half-meter sticks with a finger-thick and three-meter cord thick with a goose feather. Such sticks-watches were inserted vertically into metal vases and slowly smoldered, counting time and incidentally filling the room with fragrance. Cords rolled into rings, forming from them a conical spiral, widening downwards, and suspended from the bracket above the pallet. To start such a clock, it was necessary to ignite the spiral from the lower end. The marks, made on a spiral, divided the night time into five parts. This way of measuring time was accurate enough. If desired, the clock could easily be turned into an alarm clock by hanging a small metal weft at a certain point in the spiral. Fire, reaching the suspension, survived the thread, and the weights with noise fell on the copper pallet.

For an approximate measurement of time, our ancestors used watches in the form of oil lamps. The vessel, where the light oil was poured, was made of glass, and on the scale applied to the vessel, it was possible to monitor the level of the remaining oil. Several such primitive devices can be found in museums in Europe.

The public clock, hung on the streets, for that and public, to attract the attention of many people. This inexorable conclusion was reached by the municipality of Paris, having approved the construction of such a strange construction. A huge ball rotates on a vertical axis, and a small white ball, fixed on its surface, plays the role of an "arrow". On the pegs "driven" into the ground around the building, figures from 1 to 12 are inscribed. To find out what time it is, we need to bypass the ball and see which of the pegs is covered by a small ball. Strange as it may seem, most of the time the new watch suited not children, but adults.

Wristwatch was first made by the Parisian jeweler Niton. In 1809, at the request of Napoleon's wife, 1 Josephine, he made two identical gold bracelets, adorned with precious stones and pearls. In one bracelet he mounted a miniature watch, in the other - a calendar. However, the watch with the bracelet did not interest the watchmakers of the time. Such watches became widespread in France only from 1850, and their serial production was organized much later: first in Switzerland (1880), then in England and the USA.

The wristwatches were rated first by the military: sailors, aviators, artillerymen. Subsequently, women paid tribute to the novelty. In the 20-ies of our century there were the first women's wristwatch, in the design of which the decoration elements clearly predominated. Not only the bracelet, but also the watch case was made of precious metals and trimmed with precious stones. But, despite the external appeal, the wristwatch was considered the fruit of a female whim and enjoyed a bad reputation: the technology used at that time could not guarantee the necessary accuracy of the clock.

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