Crater of the volcano

To the west of the volcano Kilimanjaro, at a distance of about 300 km, one of the most amazing wonders of Africa - the long-extinguished crater of the volcano Ngorongoro - is located.

To the west of the volcano Kilimanjaro, at a distance of about 300 km, one of the most amazing wonders of Africa - the long-extinguished crater of the volcano Ngorongoro - is located

The crater of the volcano Ngorongoro was formed about 2 million years ago as a result of a powerful explosion that carried the top. It is a deep hollow with an area of almost 350 square meters. km, a radius of 10 km and more than 60 km in circumference, enclosed by a steep mountain wall 500-600 m high, located at an altitude of 1700-1800 m above sea level.

A large amount of precipitation generously moistens the extinguished volcano crater and several small rivers flowing into the center of its water run down from the crater slopes with dense tropical forest. They flow into the lake, located in the center.

Thus, both food and water all the inhabitants of the extinguished volcano crater are fully provided. Not surprisingly, in Ngorongoro gathered a large "society" of representatives of all animals and birds in Africa.

On the Japanese island of Kyushu there is an even larger natural formation of this kind - the extinct crater of the Aso volcano. Its length in a circle exceeds 120 km. Like Ngorongoro, the crater of Aso is surrounded by high walls, which, near the very bottom, are covered with forest. This volcano crater, unlike its African fellow, is cultivated. Its bottom is covered with a thick blanket of meadows and rice fields.

In the crater of the Aso volcano there are several large villages that are connected by road and even by railways. In the center of this hollow, there is a deep abyss - the mouth of the volcano.

Scientists have until now believed that volcanoes are born above the centers of deep magmatic foci. While geologists did not receive photos of our planet, taken from the artificial satellites and manned spacecraft. A global look at Earth from space revealed an interesting phenomenon: almost always at some distance from the crater of the volcano a huge ring depression is spread out... There was no explanation for this.

Scientists have put forward a bold hypothesis: the main events of volcanic activity are played out not in places where there is a volcano crater, but in the center of the ring hollow - exactly there, according to scientists, there is an magmatic focus. This was fully confirmed by geological expeditions - the richest mineral deposits formed as a result of the rise of the red-hot magma to the surface of the earth, were found near the center of the ring basin. Volcanoes have so far simply deceived geologists, pointing far from the richest deposits.

The discovery made from space has not only great scientific significance for clarifying the mechanism of volcanic activity. As a result, its geologists have received a new reliable reference point in the search for the richest deposits of volcanic origin.

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