Stones in a living organism

Stones are pieces of dead nature. But the formation of a stone is often associated with the life or death of living organisms. Typical stones with properties of mineral or crystal, found in plants and animal organisms. For example, in the cells from which plants are built, one can meet perfectly created crystals, aggregates and marbles, especially from oxalic acid or calcium carbonate. In the potato cells there are crystals of protein substances, in some algae - gypsum crystals.

Often, large stones in a living organism are formed - both in a healthy body and in a diseased one

Often, large stones in a living organism are formed - both in a healthy body and in a diseased one. In the first case, these are stones that are formed in the choroid of the eyes of some animals, in dead cells of bones, milk stones in the mammary glands. But much more serious are those stones that are formed in diseased organisms from sparingly soluble salts - mainly calcium salts - and deposited in tissues, cavities, excretory ducts - gallstones in the liver and urinary stones in the bladder.

But the most remarkable stones that are deposited in a living organism are shells of various mollusks, needles and skeletons of radiolarians, complex bulkheads and walls of polyps - corals, pearl formation; because it is here that there is a huge deposition of silica and especially calcium carbonate.

Pearls distinguish those types of mollusks that are capable of depositing pearl matter. The substance of mother-of-pearl and pearls is one and the same. Pearl is mother of pearl, which has arisen under special conditions. The outer layer of the skin of the mollusk secretes mother-of-pearl under normal conditions, deposited on the inner surface of the shell. Pearls are formed when any foreign matter penetrates into the shell, whether it be a parasite or a grain of sand around which, as around the core, pearly layers begin to be deposited.

For a long time the reason for the formation of pearls was seen in penetration into the shell of an alien body and in this way they tried to artificially obtain pearls. In China, such attempts were made back in the 13th century. In the 18th century, the experiments of Linnaeus were introduced, which introduced various bodies into the shells. In China, and up to the present time, shells are collected in the spring, various small articles of bone, wood or metal are put in them, then these objects remain in the shell of a living organism. A few years later they are extracted and sold.

Curious experiments taught a person to use a living organism to grow stones with his help. This idea is very tempting, and it is possible that scientists will be able to use the animal world for their purposes in the future. Breeding the right bacteria, you can get from the salt solutions native sulfur and iron. In lakes, breeding diatoms will result in the accumulation of pure opal on the bottom and the purest aluminum ores in solution.