Stones of lakes, marshes and seas

Stones can be found not only in the mountains, quarries and mines. At the bottom of the lakes, marshes and seas, you can also find a variety of stones. But, what in this case is called a mineral? If only a hard and dense stone is called a mineral, from which rocks and mountains consist, then, perhaps, there is no such stone here. But if a mineral is called any part of an inanimate nature that is formed under a wide variety of conditions, at least on the bottom of lakes, marshes and seas, then a huge field of activity opens up to the mineralogist.

Stones can be found not only in the mountains, quarries and mines. At the bottom of the lakes, marshes and seas, you can also find a variety of stones

Take, for example, vivianite. Vivianite is a phosphoric acid salt iron, and its formation is associated with the destruction of organic substances of plants and animals. As the swamp dies, peat and vivianite form in it, and both of them appear before our eyes. Sometimes they accumulate in such quantities that peat is converted into a stock of valuable fuel, and vivianite marshes can be used as blue paint. This mineral can be found, for example, in earthworks in the swampy terrain. Dug the ground while it has a bright blue color.

But not only in the swamps before our eyes grow stones. Every year spring waters drain in huge quantities into lakes and seas, and in these brown waters, along with the masses of brown organic matter, many iron and other metals. At the bottom of the lakes, these substances begin to settle slowly, as the turbidity settles in the glass, and black-brown crusts cover not only rocks and rocks, but also plant remnants and grains of sand. Slowly rolling these grains of sand along the coast with black crusts growing on them, and whole peas grow from small black dots for hundreds of years, which dot the bottom of the lakes - these are the so-called "bean ores". Slowly and gradually, not without the help of the smallest microorganisms, goes the growth of these glandular clusters, and from the minute amounts of iron dissolved in spring waters, whole deposits of fine iron ore are produced.

But even more remarkable are the same glandular clusters at great depths, at the bottom of the seas - in the Gulf of Finland, in the White Sea and, especially, in Arctic Ocean. Fishing vessels, lowering to the bottom of special tools - dredges, sometimes get from the depths of such glandular cluster the size of a palm. Usually they are rather flat and are deposited around different pebbles and fragments of rocks. Often they completely dot the bottom of the seas with small brown patches, then, as it were, with flat cakes. No wonder the researchers say that the bottom of the northern seas is the world's most remarkable iron mine.

At the bottom of large oceans, too, there is the formation of a wide variety of minerals. Here fragments of shells and skeletons of animals fall, here, in absolute darkness of depths, from the remains of organisms new strange stones are created. Some accumulate where the fish die from the clash of cold and warm sea currents; others grow from the debris of white shells.

In the darkness and silence of the depths, its slow work is proceeding, as a result of which new stones of lakes, marshes and seas of dying animals and plants are formed. Thus, new dead formations of the Earth are born.