How to identify minerals

How to identify minerals? This is to find out what they consist of and how they are called. This issue occurs when minerals are collected and brought home. But this is not an easy task, because only two hundred to three hundred of them are more or less common, and all minerals and their varieties are about three thousand.

How to identify minerals? This is to find out what they consist of and how they are called

Applying the methods of the soldering tube, chemical reactions and using special guidelines for comparing colors, brilliance, shape, you can be sure that it was possible to determine the minerals correctly. After this, it is still necessary to scientifically describe the minerals and, knowing their composition, to bind to other minerals that occur along with them.

To determine the name of the mineral, it is necessary to establish which metals and chemical elements it contains. For this purpose, in mineralogy you can use a simple device - a special soldering tube . One end of it is inserted into the flame of a simple candle, or a gasoline burner, and in the second, the air is inflated by the mouth, which raises the temperature to 15000 C. In such a flame, a piece of glasses melts, a piece of quartz remains unchanged, and feldspar will be fused into white porcelain mass. This shows that different stones melt at different temperatures. To determine the mineral, it is crushed into powder, mixed with water, placed on a piece of charcoal and sent to it a hot flame of the soldering tube. At the same time some minerals on coal give white, yellow, green and other raids, and some can smelt balls of pure metal. All this gives a picture of the chemical reaction, and from it one can judge what is contained in the mineral.

Determine the minerals is not easy without their chemical analysis. To do this, they must be crushed, grated in a mortar, boiled in a test tube with different acids or water. In this case, some minerals dissolve in water, others do not; for some acids act, separating gas bubbles from them, the other strongest acids have no effect. On all this, a number of very important conclusions can be drawn about the nature of the mineral. But often this is not enough to determine the minerals. It is also necessary to study different physical properties: color, gloss, shape crystals, cleavage; determine the specific gravity and especially hardness. The specific gravity is difficult to determine without special weights, but this is a very important sign that minerals differ from each other, and very sharply: the same weight as water, and others - 20 times heavier. But it is most convenient to determine the minerals on a hardness scale, by scratching a number of samples, which each mineralogist must have in his own box.

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