New Holland

It is known that the fifth continent Australia was opened by the Dutch seafarer Willem Jansson in 1606. In 1644, New Holland was explored by Abel Tasman along the northern and northwestern coast. Due to the unusual climate, New Holland has not been inhabited for a long time. In 1770, James Cook, an English navigator, approached the east coast of the mainland and explored it in detail. Open territory he called New South Wales and declared it a British colonial possession.

In 1644, New Holland was explored by Abel Tasman along the northern and northwestern coast

As noted by the famous geographer Erich Rakwitz, in England a project arose to make New Holland a place of exile for prisoners. In this way, the British killed two birds with one stone: first, they were able to unload their prisons, and secondly, the British crown could still benefit from deported criminals in the future. In addition to criminal elements, the British authorities exiled revolutionary figures there. On January 26, 1788, the first settlers arrived in New Holland. There were 850 people. The exiles were accompanied by Arthur Philip. The captain named the landing site Sydney, in honor of the British Minister of the colonies of Lord Sydney.

Studies of the southern shores of New Holland were conducted by French naval sailors Nicola Voden and Jacques Amelin. One of the open archipelagos Voden named in honor of Napoleon Bonaparte, and the bay - named after his brother Joseph Bonaparte.

Major achievements in the study of New Holland belong to the British naval sailor Matthew Flinders. He proved that New Holland is a single continent and proposed to call it Australia. In 1901, six English colonies New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia and Tasmania merged into the Australian Union.

In accordance with the Westminster Statute, the only constitutional link between Australia and Great Britain was the common head of state - the British monarch. Australia adopted it in 1942, but the date of adoption was officially designated in 1939 in order to confirm the validity of legislation passed by the Australian Parliament during the Second World War.

The climate of Australia is under considerable influence of ocean currents, including the Indian Ocean, which create periodic droughts and seasonal tropical low pressure, which leads to the formation of cyclones in northern Australia. These factors cause a significant change in the amount of precipitation from year to year. Most of the north of the country has a tropical climate with mainly summer precipitation.

Most of the territory of New Holland - Australia is occupied by extensive deserts and low-lying areas. The most famous deserts are the Great Sandy Desert, the Great Victoria Desert. In the east of the Victoria desert is the semi-desert of the Great Artesian Basin. In the east of the mainland there are heavily ruined, low mountains - the Great Dividing Range with the maximum height in the south (Kostsyushko Mountain, 2228 m, Townsend, 2209 m). Rifts and river valleys dismember the mountains into separate massifs.

The population of Australia is 21,507,719 people (2011 census).