Indian Ocean

To get out of the Atlantic Ocean in the Indian Ocean can be done in two ways. One is around Africa. This is the path of the cruel and fearless Portuguese navigator Vasco da Gama. The other way is shorter: through Gibraltar to the Mediterranean Sea, further through the Suez Canal, the Red Sea and the Bab-El-Manuel Straits to the Gulf of Aden and the Arabian Sea. And the Arabian Sea is already the Indian Ocean.

To get out of the Atlantic Ocean in the Indian Ocean can be done in two ways

The Indian Ocean is the youngest of the oceans Earth. From the north it is limited to the shores of the Asian mainland. From the south - a conditional line connecting the extremities of South Africa and Australia. In the West - also Africa, but about the eastern border was a lot of controversy, but now the geographers seem to have agreed to consider it from Cape York in Australia, through the Torres Strait, New Guinea and further to the northeast through the Small Sunda Islands to the islands of Java, Sumatra and the city of Singapore. Why is the Indian Ocean considered the youngest? The geographical map clearly shows that its basin is surrounded by continental land areas. In the not so distant geological past of our planet, these plots were most likely joined together in a single continent by Gondwana, which split, and parts of it disintegrated in different directions, freeing the place to the ocean.

The Indian Ocean at the bottom hides several underwater ridges. And the Central Indian ridge divides the entire ocean into two regions with completely different types of earth's crust. Near the underwater mountains, deep cracks adjoin. This neighborhood inevitably causes in these areas frequent earthquakes, or rather, sea eruptions. As a result, huge waves are born - a tsunami that causes innumerable disasters to coastal residents. Such volcanoes in these troubled areas throw out so much underground matter from the bowels that from time to time new islands appear in the seismic zones.

It is not easy to take ships across the Indian Ocean. In stormy periods, waves in some of its regions are more than 15 meters high. Imagine the height of the wave is equal to a five-story house! The Indian Ocean has an area (with seas) of 76174000 km2, an average depth of 3711 m, a maximum depth of 7209 m. The coastline, with the exception of the northern part, is indistinctly indented. The shelf of the Indian Ocean is not wide (up to 100 km). The islands of Madagascar, Sri Lanka, Socotra - of continental origin; Mascarene, Crozet, Kerguelen, Prince Edward - volcanic; Lakadievsky, Maldives, Chagos, Coconut - coral. On the shelves of the Indian Ocean, the oil and gas fields have been explored (Persian and the Gulf of Oman), in the rift zones - chrome ore has been discovered, iron, manganese.

In the Indian Ocean, four climatic zones are distinguished, elongated along parallels. Under the influence of the Asian continent in the northern part of the Indian Ocean, a monsoon climate is established with frequent cyclones moving towards the coasts. The high atmospheric pressure over Asia in winter causes the formation of the northeast monsoon. In summer, it is replaced by a moist south-west monsoon, which carries air from the southern regions of the ocean. During the summer monsoon, there is often a wind of more than 7 points (with a repeatability of 40%). In summer, the temperature above the ocean is 28-320 C, in winter it decreases to 18-220 C.

Flora and fauna of the Indian Ocean are extremely diverse. The tropical area is distinguished by the richness of plankton. Particularly abundant is the unicellular alga Trichodesmium (cyanobacteria), because of which the surface layer of water is strongly cloudy and changes its color. The plankton of the Indian Ocean is distinguished by a large number of luminous organisms at night: peridini, some species of jellyfish, ctenophores, shells. Abundantly there are brightly colored siphonophores, including poisonous physalia. The vegetable world of the Indian Ocean is represented by brown (sargasso, turbine) and green algae (kaulerpa). The calcareous algae litotamniya and Halimeda, which participate together with corals in the construction of reef buildings, are also developing rapidly. In the process of activity of reef-forming organisms, coral platforms are created, sometimes reaching a width of several kilometers.

Tools