Geographical "closures"

Studying the secrets of our planet, researchers sometimes do not only geographical discoveries, but also geographical "closures". For example, you can recall at least the "closing" of scientists "Arctic lands": Sannikov, Gillis and Andreev...

Studying the secrets of our planet, researchers sometimes do not only geographical discoveries, but also geographical closures

Geographical "closures" are connected with the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean , where even before the early 70-ies of the 20th century on special maps in the area between Greenland and Spitsbergen painted a large The underwater ridge, the so-called underwater threshold of Nansen. However, the Soviet expedition on the ship "Lena", which explored the bottom in the area, did not find any ridge. True, the echo sounders here and there pointed to some rather significant seamounts, but also found large and wide "channels" between them with depressions over 3000 m. Therefore, the underwater threshold of Nansen was finally "closed".

Shores Antarctica, probably a single region of the globe , where geographers directly do geographic "closures" forever. The fact is that the beaches here mostly consist not of the usual mountain rocks, but from... ice. That's why from time to time they break away from the sixth continent, forming huge icebergs. Scientists have calculated that the ice banks of Antarctica are constantly shifting north at a speed of 50 to 500, and some areas even up to 2000 m per year. This inevitably leads to a constant change in the shoreline of this part of the world. Therefore, on the huge iceberg, the Cape of Aymery, Torshavn Bay, Evans and Ingram sailed to the ocean relatively recently, and the bays of Mackenzie and Prydz disappeared along with them. Even the large Chelyuskintsev peninsula, discovered in 1956, changing all the time, broke away from the mainland in 1964 and turned into an island with an area of 5000 sq. km. It will take some time and this "floating" geographic object will have to be "closed down" as well as on March 31, 1959, the islands of Maceys Island and Swaines Island, discovered by the English captain Swains in 1800. As it turned out, they were icebergs . Geographers in Antarctica "closed" even the volcano Sevold with a height of over 3000 m, near the glacier Aymery.

Geographic "closures" occur not only in cold latitudes. Occasionally they occur in the long-studied latitudes. So, since 1965 on geographical maps it is no longer possible to find the Ganges islands, which were "discovered" in the 17th century. the Spanish navigators. During one of the expeditions they opened the Izu Peninsula and the islands of Bonin and Volcano. Returning back, the seafarers did not recognize the islands, and, apparently by mistake having determined the geographical coordinates, "discovered" them again and gave them another name: Ganges.

Many geographical "closures" are associated with volcanic islands, which are obtained during eruptions of underwater volcanoes, and after a while again disappear in the sea depths. This they constantly cause confusion in geography, and sometimes international complications.

So, in the Mediterranean Sea between the island of Sicily and the African coast on July 13, 1831, a new land suddenly appeared, which was called the island of Julia. This island became the object of conflict between Italy and Great Britain. And while the discussions continued, the island ... washed away the sea. After that, he appeared and disappeared several more times and each time under a new name. A similar story happened in 1935, when a Japanese firm sold land to the American trust on several small islands of the Caroline archipelago. The Trust wanted to create a plantation cotton. But when the American ship went to the islands, it did not find them... It turned out that while the documents were being drawn up, the islands swallowed up the ocean.

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