Plant emotions

If you take and carefully read the work of ancient philosophers and naturalists, then the whole world around us will be alive and capable of those or other feelings. Among the major scientists, one can come across theories of a certain collective consciousness that belittles all space. But if we do not doubt about it at the expense of animals, then even such biologists will not dare to speak about plants. After all, is it possible to take seriously the emotions of plants - fear, depression, love, admiration?

After all, is it possible to take seriously the emotions of plants - fear, depression, love, admiration?

But experiments conducted in different countries in the past and this century show that emotions are not only a sign of a person or an animal, it is a characteristic feature of plant life. True, we, people, plant emotions are so simply invisible, for their fixation, certain technical means are needed. Let us examine these experiments in more detail.

American biologist Rendolph Fontes discovered the movement of electrical potentials from cell to cell, i.e. the simplest nervous system in plants. Another researcher, Chandra Voz, with the help of an optical device recording certain impulses, proved that plants can be tired. Exploring mimosa, he also found all the characteristic signs of the nervous system. But in 1966 American researcher Cleve Baxter performed especially bright experiments proving different plant emotions. He connected a device known to us as a lie detector to the plant. And he asked one person to play the role of tormentor, another - healer. One burned, stabbed, broke branches and leaves, another treated wounds, watered the soil, whispered sweet words. And the plant began to distinguish people! When the "torturer" entered the room, the plant produced an electrical impulse, that is, "cried out". But when the healer was approaching, the plant's emotions were different, it "calmed down," and electrical activity fell sharply. Interestingly, even with one thought of researchers, for example, "damage the leaf" - the plant produced a high jump in the electrical signal detected by the detector. "Plants are able to capture electromagnetic vibrations and even thoughts!" - wrote the astonished experimenter.

Clement Baxter was also interested in the possibility of identifying criminals with plants, because often murders or thefts occur in places where anything grows - a tree or at least a flower. For this, it is necessary to establish whether plants respond to aggression not only in relation to themselves and whether they have memory. There are already many experiments confirming the presence of such abilities in plants. And Baxter himself carried out similar experiments, attaching the sensor to the leaf of the philodendron. For example, one of the participants, alternately passing through the room, filled with flowers, was given the task to break the flower. After a repeated alternate passage past the plants "witnesses", the tape recorder unmistakably pointed to the "killer". The unfortunate philodendron suffered many cruel experiments: in his "eyes" they threw live fish, shrimp, boiled water, and burned his brethren. And each time the detector recorder regularly recorded an emotional peak - the flower was empathizing with the dead.

Of course, the results of such experiments were suspected, they were tried in every way to refute or, on the contrary, to confirm. And in different countries they received practically the same conclusions - plant emotions exist, they can be fixed and described.

In the 1970s, such a test was carried out in the USSR at the Institute of General Pedagogical Psychology in the laboratory of Professor B. Pushkin. It turned out that the ordinary begonia, subjected to testing by our experimenter, produced electrical signals of about 50 microV, reacting to the emotional state of a person who was three meters from the test plant. The candidate of geological and mineralogical sciences N. Sochevanov also conducted a series of experiments to measure the distance that plants can transmit signals. He spread out the roots of the radish in tens of meters from each other and began burning an extreme match. The reaction of the roots lying at a distance to the pain of a fellow man arose immediately. But in those that lay further, it was weaker, and the smallest amplitude of the reaction was in the root, lying for 800 meters from the sufferer.

A group of scientists from the University of Tubingen managed to find a receptor in the tip of a corn shoot, similar to the visual protein of rhodopsin in the retina of the human eye. This receptor is present in all plants. It is capable of absorbing, that is, as it were, "seeing" light. Due to the presence of this protein, the plant flexes, rotates at the optimum angle to the sun's rays. If the tip of the shoot is covered with a cap, the plant can not orient itself to the sun or "blind". Scientists at the University of California found that plants through special receptors also know how to determine the duration of a day's light and, depending on this, establish the optimal flowering time. They react in time to the excess of the sun: dangerous ultraviolet radiation encourages them to reproduce in their body sunscreens. True, this applies less to indoor plants, perhaps because pets are less immune.

And how many experiments were conducted with the impact of music on garden crops! Each time the conclusion was one: the plants hear and react. And they choose which melody is more to their liking. In 1986, in the contest of young researchers among German schoolchildren, Rizza Weber won, which suggested that the beans of the winding beans listen to different music. The schoolgirl soon became convinced that the plants prefer the classics, they can not stand the music of techno and rock, and from the "Brandenburg Concert" Bach come to such delight that they simply have to systematically deny this pleasure, because they are too tall to be brandished. In general, such experiments are regularly conducted from the 60s of the last century. It has been established that yields can be increased by almost 60% for individual crops. To do this, they should play calm classical music, but not more than three hours a day.

Employee of the University of North Carolina, Mary Juff introduced the seeds of ordinary radishes with sounds of different frequencies. At the normal seed germination rate of 20%, Mary managed to increase it to 90%, and the plants were twice as tall as those who grew up in silence. M. Jaff suggests that the function of hearing includes gibberellic acid. And he makes a conclusion: that plants grow up friendlier and grow better, they need to talk more often and more loudly. And the American psychiatrist John Meyes assembled a collection of various flowering plants in the greenhouse to play different melodies for them. As a result of experiments, he was convinced that the musical tastes of flowers are very different. Cyclamens love jazz, mimosas and hyacinths prefer Tchaikovsky, primroses and phloxes - Wagner.

Plants also have a certain emotional connection with their masters. For example, a man named Pierre-Paul Sauven installed a remote radio transmitter, telephoned from the office and controlled the light, temperature and recording equipment in his apartment. Returning home, he ordered his philodendron to open the garage door. Philodendron responded to the voice of the host, and the recording equipment included a mechanism to automatically open the gate.

Also interesting are the protective mechanisms of plants, activation of which occurs according to an unknown mechanism. Once in the Pretoria National Park, the mass death of the antelope kudu began. To clarify the cause of the misfortune, a zoologist, Van Hoven, was invited, who soon established it. It turns out that kudu were locked in a rather limited space, where a lot of acacias, the favorite food of these antelopes, grew. But the management of the park did not know that the acacia, which was subjected to a brutal attack of the herbivore, immediately notifies all relatives about the imminent danger. And all plants already in 10-15 minutes significantly increase in their leaves the content of the harmful substance of tannin. It was from the poisoning by tannin that kudu perished, because they had not been able to get far enough away from the feeding place of the congeners and find another food or an uninformed plant.

Thus, all the results of experiments in various laboratories of the world have confirmed: plants are complex organisms that have muscles and nerves, memory and musical abilities, suffering from diseases, bad food, experiencing love and hatred. And we just confirm once again what was well known to the ancient man - the whole living world, the emotions of plants should also be considered in their activities, as well as the emotions of our smaller brothers - animals.