Ecological system

A complex community of plants and animals together with inanimate nature (the place of its existence) is an ecological system. The relationship between the organism and the surrounding living and inanimate environment - nature German biologist E. Haeckel in 1870 called the ecology (from the Greek word "oikos" - home, asylum). So began to be called the science of living conditions of living organisms. Nowadays no branch of human knowledge, economy can properly develop without knowledge of the laws and regularities of the ecological system. Violation of any one link of the ecological system can lead to the most unexpected and undesirable consequences in nature.

A complex community of plants and animals together with inanimate nature (the place of its existence) is an ecological system

Every organism lives in a certain ecological system. His ancestors for many millions of years of development of our planet have adapted to their environment - other plants, climate, soil, temperature and humidity, salinity of water. The organisms developed their own way of eating, the habit of one or another food, the system of protection from adverse conditions. But living organisms not only adapt to environmental conditions, they, in turn, affect these conditions and are often very strong. In the process of photosynthesis, the plants change the composition of the air; The oxygen produced by them is breathed by animals and other organisms. The roots of plants secrete acids that dissolve mineral substances, thereby accelerating the process of destruction and weathering of rocks and soil formation. In their habitats, plants regulate the water cycle, keeping it in the soil and evaporating the excess into the atmosphere.

An example of an ecological system is a pond with plants, fish, invertebrate animals, microorganisms that make up a living component of the system, biocenosis in it. Thus, the German hydrobiologist K. Mobius in 1877 described an oyster bank as a community of organisms and gave it the name "biocenosis".

But not every biological system can be called an ecological system. For example, such are not an aquarium or a rotten stump. These biological systems are not sufficiently self-sufficient and self-regulating. If the aquarium ceases to regulate the conditions in the biological system and maintain the characteristics at the same level, it will collapse quickly enough. Therefore, such systems are called lower-rank communities, or microcosms. Sometimes they use the concept of facies.

The ecological system is an open system and is characterized by input and output flows of matter and energy. The basis for the existence of virtually any ecological system is the flow of energy from sunlight. At the moment, the scientific understanding of all processes within the ecological system is far from perfect, and in most of the studies either the entire ecological system or some of its parts act as a "black box".