How did carbon originate?

How did carbon originate in the rocks of the earth's crust? It originated from organic matter - almost a century this hypothesis prevailed in geological science. She claimed that only in the sedimentary rocks one can find carbon, in others it does not.

How did carbon originate in the rocks of the earth's crust? It originated from organic matter - almost a century this hypothesis prevailed in geological science

But gradually, more and more facts accumulated that there is carbon and not in sedimentary deposits. For example, it was observed that the oil and gas are confined to faults of the earth's crust. Did not they get carbon from the depths of the earth? There was a new point of view - about the inorganic origin of carbon, which means oil and natural gas. By the way, this hypothesis was also followed by Mendeleev. Its supporters believe that carbon has penetrated the upper shell of the planet from the mantle.

And just recently a new certificate appeared in favor of the inorganic origin of carbon. As early as the 20th century, Professor V. Florovskaya told that the "element of life" was met in minerals, ores and rocks of magmatic origin. The research was carried out on the Kola Peninsula, Ural, in Armenia and Transbaikalia.

Rock samples taken from the mine workings extracted from wells were irradiated with ultraviolet rays. Previously, they were wetted in organic solvents, for example in chloroform. Having fallen into pieces rock formation, it dissolves carbon compounds , which filled the cracks and pores. If the samples under the influence of ultraviolet rays began to glow - luminesce, then, therefore, they contain carbon. And such samples were found. Scientists also determined which carbon substances are in the sample and how many of them.

How did carbon get into ores and rocks that were formed from magma?

Under the conditions of the magmatic process, proceeding at a temperature of one thousand degrees, only radicals of carbon can appear, live and interact, its simplest compounds with hydrogen and oxygen. Graphite and diamond, may be products of polymerization of carbon radicals.

When the temperature falls, the course of events becomes, apparently, different. At 600-4000 complex compounds of carbon arise, for example, dyes, which are in a bound state with their containing minerals. They also include sulfur, nitrogen and oxygen. This is the secret of the coloration of the amazing mineral of hackmanite - in the mine it is painted crimson, and in the light this color is lost. And again occurs under the short ultraviolet rays! It's all about the organic dye: it's restored by absorbing radiant energy! In this regard, V. Florovskaya suggested that such dyes could perform photosynthesis. In the early stages of evolution, they assimilated and used radiant energy, could be the first photosynthesizing compounds.

But continue the journey after the carbon. The next temperature range, 1000 C - is associated with the emergence of the most diverse and complex carbon compounds. This is the last stage of the evolution of magma, when ore-forming solutions arise, asphalts, porphyrins, amino acids and other complex compounds of carbon. Their chemical association is promoted by chlorine in a hot aqueous solution, iodine, bromine, boron, affecting the course of reactions. It is also favorable that this process takes place in rocks that are excellent catalysts: in aluminosilicates or carbonates.

Special conditions for the further development of carbon compounds are created when hot waters leave the surface of the earth. They have a lot of carbon dioxide and minerals. Due to a sharp decrease in temperature and pressure, conditions arise that promote the convergence of molecules of amino acids and porphyrins. Amino acids, as we know, constitute the essence of all living things, and porphyrins are substances that are capable of photosynthesis. These include, for example, chlorophyll. Connecting with each other, they form an embryo - the so-called V. Florovsky substance, which is capable of providing itself with energy from the external environment. With his appearance, she believes, the geochemical cycle ends, biochemical evolution begins.

High-molecular compounds and other organic substances, falling through deep faults into ancient reservoirs, could form the very "primary broth" in which living systems arose.