Grenades

Grenades is minerals, consisting of silicates of aluminum, magnesium, manganese and iron. In garnets fascinates everything: color, shape and even the name itself, whose history of origin is not entirely clear until now. The most likely version is that the name "garnet" is derived from the Latin word "granum" (grain) by the similarity of shape and color to the seeds of the pomegranate. Garnets are usually found in well-expressed rhombic crystals, sometimes even granular masses of garnets are formed. Glitter of glass crystals, hardness high - 7-8. They do not have a cleavage.

Grenades is minerals, consisting of silicates of aluminum, magnesium, manganese and iron. In garnets fascinates everything

Grenades (on the left andradit (Caucasus), on the right - demantoid (Kamchatka)).

Grenades are born in the depths of the earth's crust, at high pressures and temperatures. They are extracted from placers, river and marine sediments. Previously, grenades with chrysolite were often confused. Discovered in the 19th century at Urals green grenades were mistakenly named chrysolites, and the name was assigned to them in the literature. Later, the error was corrected, and this version of the grenade became known as a demantoid. It should be noted that grenades come in a variety of colors and make up a whole family. Pirop, almandine and spessartine have a red color with different shades. This series of pomegranates even has a special general name, which is given in the initial letters: piralspit. Green or pink grossular, red or black andradite, emerald green uvarovite. These six main garnets have their own versions. Thus, the demantoid, which at the first discovery in the Urals was erroneously called chrysolite because of its similar light green color, is in chemical composition andradite. Grenades can have other colors.

Consider these varieties in more detail (some grenades on our site are devoted to individual articles). The pirope was named after the Greek word meaning "fire-like". But there are orange and pink (rhodolite) varieties of it. Being a companion of diamond, he helps with his bright color to find diamond-bearing tube. Sometimes it is taken for other red stones - ruby and spinel, however, the error is easily detected by diagnostic methods. The largest pyropes in history have been found in the mountains of the Central Bohemian region, where they were extracted for a long time, and thanks to them a whole industry was developed.

Almandine can have a raspberry or brown hue. With the increase in the content of iron, it becomes opaque, black and, accordingly, unsuitable for jewelry purposes. Its name comes from Alabanda (a district in Asia Minor), where in the beginning of our era, these beautiful stones were extracted and processed. There was also confusion with its name earlier. Found in Ceylon, it was called Ceylon ruby or candy spinel, because the color of almandine is very similar to rubyand spinel.

The rarity of spessartin grieves garnet lovers. Its name comes from the Spessart Plateau, a locality located in Bavaria, where it was first found. Its color, depending on the content of manganese, varies: brownish red, blood red, pink, orange.

Grossular and its varieties (hessonite, hydrogrossular, tsavolit) have a large range of colors - from colorless to green, pink and brown. The success is enjoyed by yellowish and orange grenades. Its name, like the name of the whole group of pomegranates, has a botanical meaning and is translated as "gooseberry".

Andradit did not immediately take his proper place in the table of ranks precious stones. This happened only after the emerald green was discovered in the Urals and undoubtedly its best variety, the demantoid. The name "demantoid" comes from the Dutch word demant, meaning in translation a diamond. Of course, the king of gems has nothing to do with this grenade. In addition, perhaps, the fact that the demantoid has a diamond shine. Another variety of andradite, topolite, also named the magnificent mineral of topaz because of the similarity of colors. Another species, melanite, having a black color, fully corresponds to its name: melanite in Greek means "black".

Emerald-green grenades of uvarovite were first found in the Urals and named in honor of Count S.S. Uvarov, president of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences. In jewelry, unfortunately, almost no stone is used because of the small size crystals. However, every fan of garnets wants to have in his collection a druzu small crystals uvarovite.

Garnets are used in jewelry, often with more expensive stones. Of them, cameos. The variety of shapes and colors of this group of minerals, diamond or resinous gloss, transparency, mirror polish all this determined the success of the use of garnets in various products that were made with special care and love.

It is impossible not to consider the mystical side of garnets. Considering a family heirloom, pomegranate ornaments and talismans were inherited from generation to generation and various superstitions were associated with them. From the history of the Middle Ages, we know about the crusades of the 11th-13th centuries. Crusaders deeply believed in the healing and magical properties of different stones. They especially liked grenades. They were worn as talismans in rings and on the neck, counting as protection against wounds and poisons. Successful campaigns gave them grounds for such a belief. Perhaps, since that time travelers have taken grenades on their way, believing that they protect them from accidents. In the collection of the Emperor Rudolf II there was also pyrop sized with a dove an egg - and all because of the belief that it helps to retain power and win victories.

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