Pamir

There is a terrain on the globe where the typical features of the nature of the tundra and hot desert are whimsically combined, where at the same time one can freeze in the cold and get severe sunburn. It is a mountainous country Pamir - "The Roof of the World". The average height of its plateaus is 4000-4500 m. Across them, sharp peaks of 6-7 thousand meters high are rapidly rising above the blue sky.

It is a mountainous country Pamir - the roof of the world. The average height of its plateaus is 4000-4500 m

Pamir has long attracted the attention of scientists and travelers. However, despite a number of expeditions in the second half of the last century, led by well-known researchers Fedchenkom, Severtsov, Oshanin and others, a significant part of the Pamir country for a long time remained unknown to science. In particular, the central Pamir in a part that adjoins a high steep mountain range named Tanymas.

The first large expedition to the Pamirs was equipped in 1928. First exploring the world's largest high mountain glacier Fedchenka, researchers among several already known ridges unexpectedly discovered another complex mountain knot of tall peaks, crowned with white caps of eternal snows. One of them rose significantly higher from the others. The new mountain system of the Pamirs was called the Ridge of the Academy of Sciences. But what about the mountain peak that loomed in the distance? His majestic pyramid rose to 7495 m. Finally, in 1932 this mystery was solved and the open mountain was called the peak of Communism (now Ismail Samani peak). September 3, 1933, climbers climbed for the first time, led by M.P. Gorbunov and E.M. Abalakovym. The highest point of the Pamirs is Kongur Peak (7719 m high) on the territory of China.

The Pamirs are characterized by a long and harsh winter and a short summer. The tops remain covered with snow all year round. The climate of the Pamirs is mountainous, severe, sharply continental. The Pamirs are located in the subtropical belt, in winter the air masses of temperate latitudes predominate here, in the summer they are tropical. The average temperature of January at altitudes of about 3600 m is 17,80 C. Winter lasts from October to April inclusive. Absolute minimum temperatures reach -500 C. Summer is short and cold.

The Pamir people are a set of small Iranian peoples inhabiting the highlands of the Pamir-Hindu Kush. Self-name in Tajik: "pomir". Pamirians are also called "Badakhshans" - as historically, this region is called Badakhshan.

Most of the settlements of the Pamirs are connected by mountain paths and lagoons. In view of the fact that Pamir is a young mountainous country with a difficult-to-cut terrain, the construction of highways here is an extremely complex engineering task and requires considerable funding. The construction of communication routes is also complicated by the high seismicity of the region, the risk of landslides, landslides, rock falls, avalanches and drifts, ice collapses, floods and mudflows. Therefore, in the Pamirs, the number of well-equipped roads is small.

Of domestic animals in the Pamir, in particular, is remarkable yak, giving dairy products and representing a single animal suitable for driving and transporting weights at high altitudes.

Tools