Plutonium

Plutonium is heavy radioactive metal brittle silver-white color, but oxidize in air, changing its color at first bronze, then blue tempered metal and after turning into a dull black or green color because of the formation of loose oxide coating. In nature, it is preferably in the form of dioxide (PuO2), which is even less water soluble than the sand. The first artificial element, which began production on an industrial scale. Plutonium is widely used in the production of nuclear fuel for civilian nuclear reactors and research destination, and as a power source for spacecraft.

Plutonium is widely used in the production of nuclear fuel for civilian nuclear reactors and research destination, and as a power source for spacecraft

Plutonium is the reactive metal and can be in the oxidation state of 3 to 7, and that a lower oxidation state, generally are more stable compared with the neptunium. It was also found similar chemical properties of plutonium and neptunium. Plutonium shows four oxidation states in aqueous solutions and a very rare one. In 1942, the unexpected was the discovery of Stan Thompson, in the group of Glenn Seaborg, which showed that tetravalent plutonium obtained in large quantities (BiPO4), when in an acidic solution in the presence of bismuth phosphate (3) it reacts with acids, oxygen and vapor, but not with alkalis. Rapidly dissolved in hydrogen chloride, hydrogen iodide, hydrogen bromide, perchloric acid, 72%, 85% orthophosphoric acid, concentrated CCl3COOH, sulfamic acid and boiling concentrated nitric acid. Plutonium is inert to concentrated sulfuric acid and acetic acid; their solution dissolves slowly and reacts i.e. corresponding salt forms. At a temperature of 1350 C due to the self-igniting metal reacts with oxygen, and if placed in an atmosphere of carbon tetrachloride, then explode.

There are about 20 plutonium isotopes, they are radioactive. Most of them is a long-life of plutonium-244, with a half life of 80.8 Ma; Plutonium-242 has a short half-life - 372 300 years; plutonium-239 - 24 110 years. All other isotopes have a half-life of less than 7 thousand years.

Plutonium alloys, or intermetallic compounds are generally prepared by the direct interaction of elements in the right way. In most cases, a homogeneous substance is applied by arc melting. Alloyed aluminum, gallium or iron, alloys of plutonium are of industrial importance.

How can derive plutonium, if he was in the human body?

Plutonium and its compounds are very dangerous. In particular, it is dangerous when the air, water or food gets deep into the body. There he advantageously deposited in the bones and alpha particles irradiates living tissue and especially bone marrow. It can cause severe fatal disease - leukemia (leukemia). If he's still got the body, the victim for a long time to drink solutions of zirconium salts. Zirconium cations displace the bones plutonium, which is eliminated via the kidneys.

During the Second World War and after its end, scientists conducted experiments on animals and humans, the dose is administered intravenously plutonium. Animal studies have shown that some of his milligrams per kilogram of tissue - a lethal dose. The "standard" dose was 5 mg plutonium, and in 1945, this figure had decreased to 1 g due to the fact that plutonium is inclined, as mentioned, to accumulate in the bones.

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