Enzymes

In the previous article, we considered some vital issues a living cell. Enormous role in this play enzymes. Studying enzymes, the mechanisms by which the cell makes proteins are becoming clear. This is a very important and interesting question. By creating enzymes, we can reshape biological systems at will, for example, to change the types of animals and plants.

In the previous article, we considered some vital issues a living cell. Enormous role in this play enzymes

Consider, for example, the main reaction of the conversion of glucose, which "burns" the body:

6H12O6 + 62 = 6CO2 + 62 + 674 calories (4 calories per gram of glucose).

A complex chain of chemical reactions ultimately leads to the appearance in the cells of phosphorus esters, rich in energy, and the transfer of phosphoric acid residues to a special compound - ATP. This connection allows, in turn, to convey the generated energy to the consumer - the heart, nerve cells, muscles.

Note that each chemical process is carried out with only one enzyme. The enzyme "X", for example, acts on substance "A", converting it to "B", and the enzyme "U" turns "B" into "G", etc. Until substance "B" appears, the enzyme "U "Inactive. As a result, there is never any confusion or unnecessary reactions: the whole process becomes strictly coordinated. Of course, one must bear in mind that the organization of cellular chemical processes is carried out in other ways, and not only due to the specificity of the enzymes.

This is how the mechanism of one of the serious diseases, diabetes mellitus, is explained today. In our body, an enzyme called hexakinase is produced. This enzyme also carries out the very first reaction of energy metabolism - adds phosphoric acid to glucose. But the enzyme itself needs the presence of another protein - insulin (hormone), without which it can not react with other substances.

At some people this hormone suddenly starts to be developed in very small quantities. The action of the entire conveyor of enzymatic reactions immediately slows down or completely ceases. Glucose can not react with the enzyme in such conditions, it accumulates in the body and floods it. There is a lot of fuel, but there is no energy. A person begins to experience hunger, he eats a lot (nervous devices signal energy hunger). Glucose comes with food, more and more overflowing blood. To get the now become superfluous glucose, you need a lot of water; a strong thirst develops. If the patient does not heal, he dies. But it is enough to introduce a solution of insulin under the skin, as the hexokinase enzyme starts to work, and the whole chain of reactions becomes in place.

Learn how to influence enzymes - slow down or speed up their action, - this is what scientists are dreaming about today. You can, for example, synthesize substances that enzymes perceive as their natural substitutes. However, these substances simultaneously and spoil the enzymes.

You ask, what is the use of spoiling the system? It depends on what system. We have already learned how to spoil the enzymes of some pathogens, without affecting the enzymes of the patient. This means that scientists who are studying cancer are looking for differences in enzymes of healthy tissue and tumors. If we could find significant differences, we could develop an appropriate poison or a false substitute, which destroys the action of this enzyme, and hence the tumor itself.

Tools