K.E. Tsiolkovsky

Now that flights to Moon have become a reality, when the formula K.E. Tsiolkovsky and the Tsiolkovsky number are the basis for calculating the movement of missiles, and he himself K.E. Tsiolkovsky is recognized everywhere in the world, in all greatness there is before us the feat of an outstanding thinker who lived and worked for the future of mankind. Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky was born in 1857 in the village of Izhevsk Ryazan province in the family of a forester. At the age of ten, he fell ill with scarlet fever and lost his hearing. The boy could not go to school and had to do it himself.

Now that flights to Moon have become a reality, when the formula K.E. Tsiolkovsky and the Tsiolkovsky number are the basis for calculating the movement of missiles

In 1879, having passed the external examinations, K.E. Tsiolkovsky became a teacher of arithmetic and geometry and was sent to work in the Borovo Uyezd School of the Kaluga province. In 1892, K.E. Tsiolkovsky moved to Kaluga. Here he teaches physics and mathematics in the gymnasium and the diocesan school, and devotes all his spare time to scientific work. Not having the means to buy equipment and materials, he makes all models and devices for experiments with his own hands. No one at that time knew yet that the greatest discoveries in the theory of rocket motion (rocket dynamics) were made in Kaluga. Only in 1903, K.E. Tsiolkovsky managed to publish a part of the article "Investigation of the world spaces by reactive devices", in which he proved the possibility of their application for interplanetary communications. K.E. Tsiolkovsky was the first to solve the problem of landing a spacecraft on the surface of planets devoid of the atmosphere.

In his apartment Tsiolkovsky created the first aerodynamic laboratory in Russia. In 1897, he built the first wind tunnel in Russia with an open working part and proved the need for a systematic experiment to determine the forces of the effect of air flow on a body moving in it. He developed the technique of such an experiment and in 1900, on a subsidy from the Academy of Sciences, made purges of the simplest models and determined the coefficient of resistance of the ball, flat plate, cylinder, cone and other bodies; described the flow of bodies of various geometric shapes over the air stream. Tsiolkovsky's works in the field of aerodynamics were the source of ideas for N.E. Zhukovsky.

In 1926-29, K.E. Tsiolkovsky developed the theory of step rockets. He proposed two types of such missiles (with a series and parallel connection of stages). His calculations, he justified the most advantageous distribution of the masses of missiles that make up the "train". In a number of his works (1896, 1911, 1914), a rigorous mathematical theory of the motion of single-stage and multistage rockets with liquid jet engines was elaborated in detail. K.E. Tsiolkovsky considered (approximately) the influence of atmosphere on the flight missiles and calculated the fuel reserves needed to overcome the missile forces of the Earth's air envelope.

K.E. Tsiolkovsky put forward a number of ideas that have found application in rocket engineering. They are offered: gas rudders (from graphite) for controlling the flight of a rocket and changing the trajectory of its center of mass movement; use of fuel components to cool the outer shell of the spacecraft (at the time of entering the Earth's atmosphere), the walls of the combustion chamber and the nozzle; pumping system for supplying fuel components, etc. In the field of rocket fuels, K.E. Tsiolkovsky investigated a large number of different oxidants and combustibles; recommended fuel fumes: liquid oxygen with hydrogen, oxygen with hydrocarbons.