"Black boxes"

In cybernetics such a task is considered. There are some objects whose internal structure we do not know. Such objects are called "black boxes". But these objects have "inputs" and "outputs". External inputs act on the "inputs", and each object responds to them with certain reactions. The problem is that, not by "opening" the black boxes, only by the nature of the input and output signals to form an idea of the internal arrangement of each particular black box.

There are some objects whose internal structure we do not know. Such objects are called black boxes

Imagine that you do not know neither the design nor the principle of the operation of your radio. It is only known that its "input" receives electrical signals from the antenna, and on the "output", in the dynamics, we hear sound: voice, music, singing. And for these "input" and "output" data it is necessary to form an idea of the construction of a black box - a radio receiver. In principle, there are two ways to solve the problem. You can register the signals coming from the antenna and compare them with what is happening on the "output". This is the path of observation. But there is another possibility, more active. We feed ourselves to the "input" various signals and observe what happens at the "exit". Obviously, the second way is more effective; in particular, it opens the possibility of operative verification of emerging hypotheses and assumptions about the "design" of the black box. Having studied the patterns connecting the input and output signals, one can in principle construct a model, accurately reflecting the device of the black box. Astrophysicists solve similar problems. Most of the space objects are black boxes, the internal structure of which, that is, the physical processes occurring in them, can be studied only by external manifestations. However, the situation of astronomers is complicated by at least two circumstances. First, they are unable to experiment, and can only observe. Secondly, most space black boxes are boxes that do not have "entrances". In any case, these "entrances" are not known to us at present. For example, we do not know of external influences that could change the course of physical processes on the Sun. There is, however, an extravagant hypothesis belonging to E. Brown, the hypothesis that periodic fluctuations in solar activity are associated with tidal perturbations from the planets. However, this is just a guess...

However, among the space objects there are also such "black boxes" for which external influences play an important role. In particular, curious phenomena were discovered in so-called double systems consisting of two stars revolving around the common center of mass. If one of these stars is massive enough and has a powerful gravitational field, then, according to the conclusions of modern astrophysics, the substance of the second, "normal" star, should flow. Such a process can play the role of an "input" signal that significantly affects the massive star. There are certain "entrances" to such "black boxes" in space, like planets and comets. For the planets this is, for example, the effect of solar activity, and for comets - thermal and light radiation of the Sun, solar wind, as well as the attraction of giant planets.

But in studying the solar black box, modern astronomers have practically only one real possibility: to register the phenomena that occur in its outer layers. This is the "outlets" of the solar black box.