Non-stationarity of matter in the Universe

More recently, astronomers did not take into account the non-stationarity of matter in the universe. They believed that space objects change little over time, and the stars and galaxies develop very slowly, without any significant changes. And, although variable stars were known, characterized by frequent changes in brightness, as well as flashes of new and supernova stars, accompanied by the release of huge amounts of energy, all these phenomena seemed episodic, not having any fundamental significance.

More recently, astronomers did not take into account the non-stationarity of matter in the universe

But it turned out that the phenomena of non-stationarity are natural stages in the evolution of matter in the Universe, which play an extremely important role in the development of cosmic objects. A number of phenomena in the Universe were discovered, associated with the release of colossal amounts of energy.

It turned out that some galaxies are sources of powerful radio emission. One of these radio galaxies (Cygnus-A) is located in the constellation Cygnus. Its radio emission, received on Earth, has the same power as the radio emission from the quiet Sun, although it is only about 8 light-minutes to the Sun, and about 700 million light-years to the Swan galaxy.

In the constellation of Taurus there is a small gas Crab Nebula. As a result of observations, it turned out that the gases entering into its composition, scatter with a tremendous speed of 1000 km/s. Apparently, this is a consequence of the explosion of a huge force, which occurred about 965 years ago, when all the matter of the Crab nebula was concentrated in one place. In the annals of those times it is told that in the spring of 1054 a star flashed in the constellation Taurus. For 23 days, it shone so brightly that it was clearly visible in the daytime sky with the light of the sun. These facts indicate that the Crab Nebula is the remnant of a supernova explosion.

The Crab Nebula is an extremely powerful source of radio emission. In general, any space object, be it a galaxy, a star, a planet or a nebula, if its temperature is above absolute zero, must emit electromagnetic waves in the radio band the so-called thermal radio emission. The amazing thing was that the radio emission of the Crab Nebula was many times more powerful than the thermal radio emission that it would have to have in accordance with its temperature.

Two questions arise: what is the physical radio emission mechanism of galaxies and where does the energy necessary to sustain this radiation come from? It was then that one of the most outstanding discoveries in modern astrophysics was made, a discovery that gave the key to understanding the physical nature of the non-stationarity of matter in the Universe. A theory of non-thermal electromagnetic radiation from cosmic objects, generated by the motion of very fast electrons in magnetic fields, was developed. Such radiation was called synchrotron. Later it turned out that the radio emission of radio galaxies is of precisely this nature.

As for the source of energy, in the Crab Nebula such a source was a flash of a supernova. And in radio galaxies, the source of their energy, apparently, are the active physical processes that take place in the nuclei of these star systems. Often, a significant fraction of the radiation of the entire galaxy is concentrated in the nucleus. There is a core and our galaxy. Radio observations have shown that a continuous outflow of hydrogen occurs from it. For the year emitted mass of gas, equal to one and a half the masses of the sun.

For example, in the galaxy M82, there is a scattering of gas jets in all directions from the nucleus at speeds up to 1500 km/s. Apparently, this phenomenon is associated with an explosion that occurred several million years ago in the core of this star system. According to some calculations, his energy was truly colossal - it corresponds to the explosion energy of a thermonuclear charge with a mass equal to the mass of several tens of thousands of suns. True, recently there have been some doubts about the explosion in M82. However, a number of galaxies are still known, in the nuclei of which extremely powerful non-stationary transformations of matter take place.