Models of the Universe

From the smallest dust particles and atoms to huge clusters of matter - starry worlds and star systems - this is the entire universe. The knowledge of the universe as a whole consists, first of all, in an ever more profound study of its constituent parts. This difficult process embraces more and more broad areas of phenomena, never exhausting to the end all forms of movement and existence of matter. Here, the model of the Universe comes to the rescue. What are they?

Here, the model of the Universe comes to the rescue. What are they?

Recently, with the rapid development of computer technology, the so-called method of modeling has become very popular in various fields of scientific research. The essence of this method is that instead of this or that real object, its model is studied, more or less accurately repeating the original or its most important and essential features.

For example, for a long time astronomers have been studying the homogeneous and isotropic model of the universe, that is, an imaginary universe in which all physical phenomena proceed in the same way and all laws remain unchanged for any of its regions and in any directions. We also studied the models of the Universe, in which the third was added to these two conditions - the invariability of the world picture. This means that in whatever epoch we contemplate the world, it should always look the same in general outline. These largely conditional and schematic models helped to clear some important aspects of the world around us.

At the disposal of modern astronomy there is no indication that physical laws valid for one area of the universe are not being met in other areas of the universe. However, it is quite obvious that the real Universe is much more complicated than the one described by isotropic and homogeneous models. Such models of the universe are just one of the first approximations to the real picture of the world. For example, if there is a common force field in the Metagalaxy, then the rate of time in different parts of it will be different. This rate can also vary in the region of anomalously large condensations of matter. Hence, the development of the same physical processes in different areas of space can proceed in different ways. In addition, the Metagalaxy is very large, and in order for the interaction between its separate regions to be realized, enormous time intervals, measured in billions of years, are needed. And for such a time the general picture of the Metagalaxy can be substantially changed.

This indicates the need for in-depth development of an inhomogeneous and non-isotropic model of the universe. At the same time, it is very important that all results obtained with the help of this or that model of the universe be checked by comparison with reality. One can not identify the phenomenon with its model.

Meanwhile, all models of the universe can not claim the role of an exact "impression" of the universe. This is indicated at least by the fact that logically consistent models with exactly the opposite properties can be constructed with equal success. So, for example, you can build a model that emerged from nothing and in which the law of conservation of matter and motion is fulfilled. At the same time, in another, also non-contradictory model, the Universe exists eternally, but in it the "creation" of matter constantly occurs.

Despite this, the universe as a whole is knowable. Because, like all processes, it must have the most significant lines of development. And whatever the huge scale, they must manifest themselves in those natural phenomena that occur around us. This circumstance opens up for science the possibility of constructing a model of the universe and thus cognizing the most general laws of nature on the basis of the study of finite objects and phenomena.