At the turn 3-2 millennia BC in the southwest of Central Asia there was a civilization of ancient farmers. Its main centers were Altyn-Depe, Namazga-Depe, Ulug-Depe and others. They originated as far back as the 3rd millennium BC. At the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC they reached the zenith. The most studied ancient civilization of Central Asia is Altyn-Depe.

The civilization of Altyn-Depe (2300-1900 BC) is characterized by many features that are inherent in the cultures of the ancient East

The civilization of Altyn-Depe (2300-1900 BC) is characterized by many features that are inherent in the cultures of the ancient East. It originated on the basis of the development of local agricultural and pastoral communities, which in 5-4 millennium BC mastered the smelting of copper, began to breed cattle and camels.

The largest centers of Central Asian civilizations were the first two urban-type settlements - Altyn-Depe and Namazga-Depe. These cities were surrounded by fortified mud-brick walls, gates, fortified with powerful towers-pylons. In each of them there were about 11-12 thousand people.

Ruins of Altyn-Depe located in the southwest of Turkmenistan, in the foothills of the Kopetdagh. They occupy the top of the 20-meter hill, formed by powerful cultural strata.

In the center of Altyn-Depe was a monumental temple with a tower. The altar was set up on the top of the tower. Temple in Altyn-Depe was dedicated to the god of the moon.

The architecture of the temple in Altyn-Depe resembles similar buildings of Babylon and Sumer. These facts clearly indicate that the Altyn-Depe civilization was in close contact with the main cultural centers of the ancient East, as a bridge between the cities of Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley.

The Altyn-Depe lived and worked most artisans of various specialties. Ruins handicraft quarters stretch for dozens of meters.

A large part of the inhabitants of Altyn-Depe worked on fields that are irrigated using a simple system of irrigation canals. The inhabitants of Altyn-Depe already used wheeled vehicles. Judging by the numerous clay models of carts, mainly four-wheel, as draft animals used camels.

Artisans and farmers Altyn-Depe lived in multi buildings, consisting of the close little rooms. The chiefs and priests lived in big houses with the correct layout of rooms.

In The tombs are located in the "elite quarter", archaeologists have found a variety of jewelry, including gold and silver necklaces of semiprecious stones, silver and bronze rings.

In the middle of the 2nd millennium BC settlement Altyn-Depe fall into decay. The main cultural center moved to the east, where the Murghab River Delta and along the middle reaches of the Amu Darya develop new settlements settled farmers.